What Agricultural Weather Station Can Measure
An agricultural weather station is an automatic device for specific monitoring of the agricultural environment.
Its main function is real-time monitoring of wind, temperature, humidity, pressure, rainfall, radiation, photosynthetic efficiency, soil temperature, soil moisture, soil pH, soil salinity, CO2.
|1. Regulation of winds on the microclimate of farmland|
(1)Wind will affect farmland turbulent exchange intensity;
(2)Increase the exchange of heat and moisture between the ground and the air
(3)Increase soil evaporation and crop transpiration, and also increase the exchange of CO2 and other components in the air.
|1. Harm of winds to crops|
(1)Wind power above level 6 can harm crops.
(2)Winds with a wind speed of >17m/S (Grade 8 or above) are called strong winds, and they are harmful to agriculture.
(3)The strong wind accelerates the transpiration of the plant, causing excessive water consumption, and reduced photosynthetic intensity.
|2. Wind and Photosynthesis|
(1)At low wind speeds, the boundary layer of the blade becomes thinner,
(2)CO2 diffusion resistance decreases, which is beneficial to the transport of CO2;
(3)Photosynthetically active radiation can be reasonably distributed to the leaf layer in the form of a flash, thereby increasing the intensity of photosynthesis and improving light. Energy efficiency.
|2. Wind energy aggravates drought and causes soil erosion|
(1)If windy weather occurs in arid regions and dry seasons, not only the consumption of soil moisture increases but also the drought conditions will increase.
(2)Gale will also blow away a lot of topsoil and cause wind erosion.
|3. Influence of wind on pollen and seed spread|
(1)Many plants in the natural world are cross-pollinated and spread by the force of the wind.
(2)The size of the wind speed will affect pollination efficiency and the seed propagation distance.
|3. Wind energy spreads pests and diseases|
(1)Wind energy spreads pathogens and causes the spread of crop diseases.
(2)Spores of wheat rust spread northwards in the spring and spread northwards into the cool regions, and fall into the winter warmer regions with the northerly airflow, causing damage.
|Wind direction||Measuring range 0~360°|
Accuracy ± 3°
|Wind speed||Measuring range 0~60 m/s|
Accuracy ：± 0,3m/s or ±3%
|Measuring range 0~1m/s or 0~2m/s|
Accuracy ：0.2… 1m/s:
±(0.05m/s (10ft/min) +2% of MV)
±(0.08m/s (16ft/min) +4% of MV)
|In the greenhouse agro-meteorological research, ultra-low wind speed standards will be adopted|
|Low temperature effect||High temperature hazard|
|● Cool damage|
Cool damage means that during the growing season of crops, the temperature is 0°C.
Above, sometimes even crops at about 20°C Hazard.
● Freeze damage
|● Impaired photosynthesis, increased respiration, and reduced net assimilation.|
● Accelerate transpiration and disrupt the water balance in the crop.
● The high temperature hazards encountered during the flowering period of crops will reduce the flowering rate, pollen germination, and the cracking of anthers. The final result is the reduction of seed setting rate.
● When crops encounter high-temperature hazards during grain filling, they will cause premature root failure and decline in leaf function, shorten the grain filling period, and seriously affect the increase in grain weight.
● High temperature directly burns agricultural organisms.
|Temperature||Measuring range -50-85°C|
|Monitoring atmospheric temperature and soil temperature|
Water affects the main aspects of crops
1. Water is the raw material for photosynthesis of green plants.
2. How much water affects the intensity of crop photosynthesis.
3. Moisture as a medium also affects the process of crop photosynthesis.
4. Water supply the need for crop transpiration, and transpiration is regulating the body temperature of the crop, or plant roots absorb moisture and nutrients from the soil one of the power.
5. Moisture is one of the main factors of plant composition. According to the determination, the water content of the general plants is 75-90% of the fresh weight, and even the aquatic plants are as high as 98%.
|Hypohydration Hazards||Excessive Water Hazard|
(1)Drought refers to long-term precipitation, resulting in air drying
(2)The lack of water in the soil causes the water in the crops to be deficient and affected.
(3)A crop that reduces yield, and even dies
● Dry hot wind
|● Flood disaster|
(1)It refers to outbreaks of flash floods caused by heavy rain and heavy rain.
(2)River flooding, flooding large fields of farmland, destroying agriculture facility.
● Waterlogging harm
● Wet damage
|Humidity||Measuring range 0-100%|
|Soil Moisture||0-50% ±2%|
|Rainfall||Measuring range: 0-999.9mm|
|Water Level||Measuring Range: 0-30m|
Solar Radiation Measurement
● Photosynthetic effect
● Thermal effect
● Morphological effects of light
Light also affects the geographical distribution of plants to a considerable extent.
Light mainly affects plants from three aspects:
● The length of the light, which is the length of the light.
● Light intensity, the intensity of light.
● Light quality, ie different spectral composition.
|Radiation||Measuring range: 0-2000w/m2|
Impact on plants
1. Most plants are difficult to grow at pH>9.0 or <2.5. Plants can grow normally over a wide range, but all plants have their own suitable pH. Sour-acid plants: rhododendron, bilberry, camellia, cedar, pine, rubber tree, lithia; Hi-calcium plants: alfalfa, grass rhinoceros, southern sky, cypress, eucalyptus, eucalyptus, etc.; Saline-alkali plants: Tamarix, Elaeagnus, Poria, etc. 2. Plant pests and diseases are directly related to soil acidity and alkalinity. (1) Underground pests often require a range of pH environmental conditions, such as bamboo and earthworms and chafers and alkalis. (2) Some diseases only occur within a certain pH range. For example, damping-off often occurs in alkaline and neutral soils. 3. Soil activated aluminum exchangeable aluminum adsorbed on soil colloids and aluminum ions in soil solution, it is an important ecological factor. It has a significant impact on the distribution, growth and succession of natural vegetation. [/av_icon_box] [av_icon_box position='left' icon_style='' boxed='' icon='ue837' font='entypo-fontello' title='Soil PH Measurement Parameter' link='' linktarget='' linkelement='' font_color='' custom_title='' custom_content='' color='' custom_bg='' custom_font='' custom_border='' av-medium-font-size-title='' av-small-font-size-title='' av-mini-font-size-title='' av-medium-font-size='' av-small-font-size='' av-mini-font-size='' admin_preview_bg='' av_uid='av-2p682us'][/av_icon_box] [av_table purpose='tabular' pricing_table_design='avia_pricing_default' pricing_hidden_cells='' caption='' responsive_styling='avia_responsive_table' av_uid='av-2ncc1c4'] [av_row row_style='avia-heading-row' av_uid='av-2u27duc'][av_cell col_style='' av_uid='av-2s6r6pw']Item[/av_cell][av_cell col_style='' av_uid='av-2r1jzno']Content[/av_cell][av_cell col_style='' av_uid='av-2pfwsv8']Remark[/av_cell][/av_row] [av_row row_style='' av_uid='av-2mub8us'][av_cell col_style='' av_uid='av-2ludb2c']Soil PH[/av_cell][av_cell col_style='' av_uid='av-2k4u5p0']Measuring range: 0-14 PH Resolution: 0.01PH Accuracy: ± 0.1PH[/av_cell][av_cell col_style='' av_uid='av-2i9gylg']None[/av_cell][/av_row] [/av_table] [av_textblock size='' font_color='' color='' av-medium-font-size='' av-small-font-size='' av-mini-font-size='' admin_preview_bg='' av_uid='av-27jvcxw']
1. Make the soil more compact.
When the granule structure in the soil is reduced, the aeration and water permeability of the soil will be poor, and the soil will become sticky when it comes into contact with water.
After the drying, there will be a large number of cracks on the surface. Roots stretch very slowly in such soils, and impervious and impermeable soils are more likely to cause root injury.
2. Inhibition of vegetable root development.
Planting vegetables in salt-damaged soils generally shows short stature, poor development, and dense foliage.
In severe cases, they start to dry or brown from the leaves, turning inwards or outwards, and the roots turn brown and die.
|Soil EC||Measuring range: 0.00-19.99ms/cm|
Photosynthesis is the basis on which the biological community depends. Green plants and certain bacteria utilize chlorophyll, which converts carbon dioxide and water into organic matter, and releases the biochemical process of oxygen.
For almost all living things in the biological community, this process is the key to their survival.
And the carbon and oxygen cycle on Earth, photosynthesis is essential.
Photosynthesis of plants is the biochemical process of converting oxygen and carbon dioxide into the organic matter under the irradiation of visible light and releasing oxygen.
Carbon dioxide is required for the photosynthesis of plants.
|CO2||Measuring range: 0~5000ppm|
Because an agricultural weather station is generally deployed in farmland, there is no independent power supply environment.
It is also not easy to lay cables, so most of them use solar power, which requires the device to reduce power consumption and try to sleep in order to achieve long-term power supply.
Therefore, in a specific application, it is necessary to analyze the power consumption and the configuration ratio of the solar panel.
In practical applications for an agricultural weather station, devices are generally transmitted wirelessly. There are mainly the following forms:
1 GPRS / 4G
In the system service, in addition to receiving monitoring data, different pest models were made based on different meteorological conditions.
Through remote monitoring, agricultural experts can understand crop conditions and early warning information.
It is helpful for building up the “auto-diagnosis” system.