In recent years, there have been more and more topics for smart agriculture. It seems that this tuyere is coming. In the system of smart agriculture, An agricultural weather station plays an important role.
Today, we will systematically introduce an agricultural weather station to everyone so that you can have a correct understanding of agricultural meteorology, and can easily choose and purchase the proper agricultural weather stations in 2019.
Meteorological conditions, as natural resources, directly or indirectly provide the necessary energy and materials for the growth and development of agricultural organisms and the formation of their yield. Therefore, the establishment of an agricultural weather station is particularly important.
Since the life process of agricultural organisms is completed in the external natural environment, it will inevitably be affected by favorable and adverse meteorological conditions. Even if agricultural production technology reaches a very high level in the future, people will still have to arrange agricultural production based on the control of meteorological conditions.
There are many external natural conditions affecting agricultural production, of which there are mainly
Soil: soil properties (Sand, Loam, Clay Loam), pH,
Soil fertility – organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium
Weather: light, heat, water, gas
Topography: elevation, slope aspect, small terrain, body of water
In meteorological conditions, factors such as light, heat, water, and gas can neither replace each other, but also restrict each other, comprehensively affecting agricultural production, and its different combinations will have different effects on agricultural production. Unfavorable combinations will lead to production cuts, favorable combinations will increase agricultural production, and optimal combinations will make agriculture high production, high quality, and high efficiency.
In fact, the vertical scale of agricultural meteorological systems is not large.
The upper boundary of the system is not more than 30 meters above the ground, and the lower boundary extends deep into the soil from 30 to 50 centimeters or even several meters. The scope of weather monitoring is concentrated in this area.
What Agricultural Weather Station Can Measure
An agricultural weather station is an automatic device for specific monitoring of the agricultural environment. Its main function is real-time monitoring of wind, temperature, humidity, pressure, rainfall, radiation, photosynthetic efficiency, soil temperature, soil moisture, soil pH, soil salinity, CO2.
Influence Of Wind.
1. Regulation of winds on the microclimate of farmland
Wind will affect farmland turbulent exchange intensity, increase the exchange of heat and moisture between the ground and the air, increase soil evaporation and crop transpiration, and also increase the exchange of CO2 and other components in the air, so that the air inside the crop groups is continuously updated, Temperature, water vapor, CO2, etc. play an important role in the regulation.
1. Harm of winds to crops
Wind power above level 6 can harm crops. Winds with a wind speed of >17m/S (Grade 8 or above) are called strong winds, and they are harmful to agriculture. The strong wind accelerates the transpiration of the plant, causing excessive water consumption, resulting in closed stomata and reduced photosynthetic intensity.
2. Wind and Photosynthesis
At low wind speeds, the boundary layer of the blade becomes thinner, the CO2 diffusion resistance decreases, which is beneficial to the transport of CO2, and photosynthetically active radiation can be reasonably distributed to the leaf layer in the form of a flash, thereby increasing the intensity of photosynthesis and improving light. Energy efficiency.
2. Wind energy aggravates drought and causes soil erosion
If windy weather occurs in arid regions and dry seasons, not only the consumption of soil moisture increases but also the drought conditions will increase. Gale will also blow away a lot of topsoil and cause wind erosion.
3. Influence of wind on pollen and seed spread
Many plants in the natural world are cross-pollinated and spread by the force of the wind. The size of the wind speed will affect the pollination efficiency and the seed propagation distance, thus exerting a great influence on the reproduction and distribution of plants.
3. Wind energy spreads pests and diseases
Wind energy spreads pathogens and causes the spread of crop diseases. According to studies, spores of wheat rust spread northwards in the spring and spread northwards into the cool regions, and fall into the winter warmer regions with the northerly airflow, causing damage.
Wind Measurement Parameter
Measuring range 0~360°
Accuracy ± 3°
Measuring range 0~60 m/s
Accuracy ：± 0,3m/s or ±3%
Measuring range 0~1m/s or 0~2m/s
Accuracy ：0.2… 1m/s:
±(0.05m/s (10ft/min) +2% of MV)
±(0.08m/s (16ft/min) +4% of MV)
In the greenhouse agro-meteorological research, ultra-low wind speed standards will be adopted
Influence Of Temperature.
Low temperature effect
High temperature hazard
● Cool damage
Cool damage means that during the growing season of crops, the temperature is 0°C.
Above, sometimes even crops at about 20°C Hazard.
● Cold damage
Cold damage refers to crops in tropical and subtropical regions of China.
Winter temperatures above 0°C (sometimes slightly below 0°C)
Frost refers to the short-time low-temperature frost damage that occurs when the temperature of the soil surface or plant surface drops below the freezing point of the plant tissue in the warm season and freezes in the body tissue.
● Freeze damage
Freezing damage refers to a kind of agrometeorological disaster caused by low temperature below 0°C or severe temperature change during overwintering of overwintering crops and fruit trees.
● Impaired photosynthesis, increased respiration, and reduced net assimilation.
● Accelerate transpiration and disrupt the water balance in the crop.
● The high temperature hazards encountered during the flowering period of crops will reduce the flowering rate, pollen germination, and the cracking of anthers. The final result is the reduction of seed setting rate.
● When crops encounter high-temperature hazards during grain filling, they will cause premature root failure and decline in leaf function, shorten the grain filling period, and seriously affect the increase in grain weight.
● High temperature directly burns agricultural organisms.
Temperature Measurement Parameter
Measuring range -50～85°C
Monitoring atmospheric temperature and soil temperature
Influence Of Water.
Water affects the main aspects of crops
1. Water is the raw material for photosynthesis of green plants.
2. How much water affects the intensity of crop photosynthesis.
3, moisture as a medium also affects the process of crop photosynthesis
The transmission of mineral nutrients needed, as well as photosynthetic products to the roots, stems, flowers, fruits and other organs and tissues.
4, water supply the need for crop transpiration, and transpiration is regulating the body temperature of the crop, or plant roots absorb moisture and nutrients from the soil one of the power, but also plays a balanced role in the whole physiological process of the crop.
5, moisture is one of the main factors of plant composition. According to the determination, the water content of the general plants is 75-90% of the fresh weight, and even the aquatic plants are as high as 98%. Adequate moisture can maintain the tension of the crop cell tissue, make the plant stems and leaves straight, and ensure that the plant has a considerable surface for photosynthesis.
Excessive Water Hazard
Drought refers to long-term precipitation, resulting in air drying
The lack of water in the soil causes the water in the crops to be deficient and affected.
A crop that grows and develops normally, reduces yield, and even dies
● Dry hot wind
Dry hot air is a kind of agricultural disaster weather that affects wheat in the warm season with high temperature, low humidity and a certain wind force.
● Flood disaster
It refers to outbreaks of flash floods caused by heavy rain and heavy rain.
River flooding, flooding large fields of farmland, destroying agriculture
● Waterlogging harm
Waterlogging is caused by excessive or excessive rainfall, or
Poor farmland drainage, resulting in farmland water accumulation, so that dry field crops victimized.
● Wet damage
Wetness is caused by prolonged rain or excessive rain.Or poor drainage of farmland after floods and floods, so that soil moisture long-term saturation, resulting in poor air permeability, temperature too low to damage crop roots and cause crop growth development is blocked or died.
● Photosynthetic effect
● Thermal effect
● Morphological effects of light
Light also affects the geographical distribution of plants to a considerable extent.
Light mainly affects plants from three aspects:
● The length of the light, which is the length of the light.
● Light intensity, the intensity of light.
● Light quality, ie different spectral composition.
Impact on plants
1. Most plants are difficult to grow at pH>9.0 or <2.5. Plants can grow normally over a wide range, but all plants have their own suitable pH.
Sour-acid plants: rhododendron, bilberry, camellia, cedar, pine, rubber tree, lithia;
Hi-calcium plants: alfalfa, grass rhinoceros, southern sky, cypress, eucalyptus, eucalyptus, etc.;
Saline-alkali plants: Tamarix, Elaeagnus, Poria, etc.
2. Plant pests and diseases are directly related to soil acidity and alkalinity:
1) Underground pests often require a range of pH environmental conditions, such as bamboo and earthworms and chafers and alkalis.
2) Some diseases only occur within a certain pH range. For example, damping-off often occurs in alkaline and neutral soils.
3. Soil activated aluminum: exchangeable aluminum adsorbed on soil colloids and aluminum ions in soil solution, it is an important ecological factor, which has a significant impact on the distribution, growth and succession of natural vegetation;
In strong acidic soils containing more aluminum, the plants that live in this type of soil are often resistant to aluminum or even aluminum (dendrobium, tea); but for some plants, such as clover, alfalfa, aluminum is toxic, The growth of aluminum in the soil is inhibited; research shows that aluminum poisoning is an important cause of land degradation of artificial forests.
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Influence Of Soil EC
1. Make the soil more compact.
When the granule structure in the soil is reduced, the aeration and water permeability of the soil will be poor, and the soil will become sticky when it comes into contact with water. After the drying, there will be a large number of cracks on the surface. Roots stretch very slowly in such soils, and impervious and impermeable soils are more likely to cause root injury.
2. Inhibition of vegetable root development.
Planting vegetables in salt-damaged soils generally shows short stature, poor development, and dense foliage. In severe cases, they start to dry or brown from the leaves, turning inwards or outwards, and the roots turn brown and die.
We know that green plants are capable of photosynthesis, that is, the synthesis of light energy. They are green plants, animals, and certain bacteria that contain chloroplasts. Under visible light irradiation, they are known as dark reactions and utilize photosynthetic pigments. Converts carbon dioxide or hydrogen sulfide and water into organic matter and releases the biochemical process of oxygen or hydrogen. There is also an energy conversion process that converts light energy into chemical energy in organic matter. Photosynthesis is the basis on which the biological community depends. Green plants and certain bacteria utilize chlorophyll, which converts carbon dioxide and water into organic matter, mainly starch, and releases the biochemical process of oxygen under the irradiation of visible light. For almost all living things in the biological community, this process is the key to their survival, and the carbon and oxygen cycle on Earth, photosynthesis is essential.
Photosynthesis of plants is the biochemical process of converting oxygen and carbon dioxide into organic matter under the irradiation of visible light and releasing oxygen. Carbon dioxide is required for the photosynthesis of plants.
CO2 Measurement Parameter
Measuring range: 0~5000ppm
Because an agricultural weather station is generally deployed in farmland, there is no independent power supply environment. It is also not easy to lay cables, so most of them use solar power, which requires the device to reduce power consumption and try to sleep in order to achieve long-term power supply.
Therefore, in a specific application, it is necessary to analyze the power consumption and the configuration ratio of the solar panel in real time and select an appropriate ratio.
In practical applications for an agricultural weather station, devices are generally transmitted wirelessly. There are mainly the following forms:
1 GPRS / 4G
In the back end of the system service, in addition to receiving monitoring data, different pest models were made based on different meteorological conditions. Through remote monitoring, agricultural experts can understand crop conditions and early warning information at the agricultural weather station site and form “auto-diagnosis” system
Where can an agricultural weather station be used?
Orchard / apple / kiwi / mango / cherry
Vineyards / (weather is critical to the quality of the brewed wine)
Tea Garden / Black Tea / Green Tea /
Herbal medicine base / planting of traditional Chinese medicine
Tobacco leaf production base
Flower Plant / Flower Growth
Forest Growth / Pine / Bamboo / Rattan /
Forest fire prevention
Forest planting / breeding
Fish exhaust station
Different pests are harmful to different host crops and all involve meteorological elements. In general, temperature, humidity, sunshine, etc. are the main meteorological elements. However, the effects of wind and vertical airflow on the adults of migratory pests cannot be ignored.
Agricultural insurance is an insurance designed to protect the economic losses caused by insurance accidents such as natural disasters, accidents, diseases, and diseases in the production of crops, forestry, animal husbandry, and fishery.
AgWeatherNet is an automated agricultural weather station network operated by Washington State University in the Pacific Northwest. It is the first and the largest agricultural weather network in the United States. Every 5 seconds, over 175 sensors (as of 2018) record air temperature, relative humidity and dew point, soil temperature at 8 inches, rainfall, wind speed, wind direction, insolation and leaf wetness. The data is reported back from each sensor to WSU’s Irrigated Agriculture Research and Extension Center in Prosser, Washington and made available to the public on the Internet. The network can be used to predict and warn of crop hazards such as freezes (especially damaging to Washington fall crops like apples) and hailstorms.
Agricultural meteorology is concerned with the interactions between atmospheric/hydrological factors and agriculture, which in its widest sense includes animal husbandry, forestry, and horticulture. This volume is an up-to-date handbook and guide to this important field. After discussion of the fundamental aspects of the atmospheric, edaphic, and biotic components of the ecosystem, the methods of measuring the important variables are reviewed, with both direct and remote sensing and managing the data taken into account.
Globally, climate change is exerting an enormous influence on productivity of both natural and cultivated ecosystems. With growing population and its needs, nature was subjected to over exploitation at the expense of sustainability of resources and production base. Of the sciences that help us in understanding and adjusting with the nature in relation to agriculture, Agricultural Meteorology is one.
Designed as a textbook for undergraduate and postgraduate students of agriculture, it fulfills the need for an uptodate comprehensive information (as per the syllabus framed by ICAR) on the theoretical and applied aspects of agricultural meteorology.